GOD DIDN’T SAY YOU ARE A WOMAN AND THEREFORE DON’T COME TO ME. WE DID.

God is for everyone. God is of everyone. That is the ideal position but something that has been a deep rooted ‘glass ceiling’ phenomenon universally, in almost every religion with different hues, in every society, in every country, including India.

We worship women. In Hinduism, Goddess Shakti is revered like the supreme deity. And it doesn’t end here. I am sure every religion has its own female deities. Yet we deny women the basic right – the right to equality in the places of worship.

And that’s why the court decisions like the one on the Haji Ali Dargah in Mumbai yesterday or the Shani Shingnapur temple in Ahmadnagar in April this year allowing women’s entry in the inner sanctum, so far barred for women, are important – away from the debates of such demands being being a mere publicity stunt – like we saw in Trupti Desai led movement that resulted in Shani Shingnapur verdict – or away from the political lethargy we see when the political class refuses to budge from its position keeping equations of the votebank politics in mind and it ultimately comes to the courts, the top custodian of our Constitution.

Court verdicts like these pull our attention to this very important discrimination prevailing in our society that we have so subtly legitimized – again in the name of religion – and have efficiently co-opted women to perpetuate such practices – out of fear psychosis – or emotional bondage – or cultural blackmail. You will find a major cross section of women advocating the women entry ban, be it Shani Shingnapur or Haji Ali. When women activists were planning to storm the Shani Shingnapur temple, women of the Shingnapur village and the nearby villages were preparing to stop them and a multi-layered security around the sanctum sanctorum.

Our scriptures say God is for everyone. They say He knows what is in our conscious and He comes to everyone. They say our faith is as important for God as God is for us. The Bombay High Court while delivering the order observed, “It cannot be said that the said prohibition `is an essential and integral part of Islam’ and fundamental to follow the religious belief; and if taking away that part of the practice, would result in a fundamental change in the character of that religion or its belief.” The High Court further summed up the spirit in its verdict, “There is nothing in any of the verses which shows, that Islam does not permit entry of women at all, into a Dargah/Mosque and that their entry was sinful in Islam.” (From the BombayHigh Court’s verdict)

When we worship our deities of both genders with equal faith and devotion, why do we discriminate between their devotees based on their genders? Why men fear women presence in innermost religious circles? That brings us to this point that religion is one of the most primitive tools to maintain male domination/hegemony in the society.

The court’s verdict on Shani Shingnapur was a slap in the face of orthodox Hinduism the same way as the yesterday’s is on Muslim fundamentalists, especially when women were allowed entry in Haji Ali’s inner sanctum till 2011-12. Haji Ali or Shani Shingnapur, they say the practice to deny women their basic rights in the religious places is not restricted to any particular religion. In fact, women have been historically denied their religious rights – and the problem is acute in religions like Islam or Hinduism or in different tribal sects. There are many taboos humiliating and restricting women rights in our society and this is one of them – a practice that has been made socially acceptable even if it is fundamentally wrong.

©SantoshChaubey

GOD IS OF EVERYONE. GOD IS FOR EVERYONE.

Yes, that is ideally the ideal position – but something that has been a deep rooted ‘glass ceiling’ phenomenon universally – in almost every religion with different hues – in every society – and in every country – including India.

We worship women. In Hinduism, Goddess Shakti is revered like anything. And it doesn’t end here. And I am sure every religion has its own female deities.

Yet we deny women the basic right – the right to the equality in the places of worship.

And that’s why the Shani Shingnapur protest by a group of women activists demanding their right to worship in the innermost sanctum of the temple, barred for women, is important – away from the debates of being politically motivated or being a mere publicity stunt.

Because they pull our attention to this very important discrimination prevailing in our society that we have so subtly legitimized – again in the name of religion – and have efficiently co-opted women to perpetuate such practices – out of fear psychosis – or emotional bondage – or cultural blackmail.

Well, our scriptures say God is for everyone. They say he knows what is in our conscious and he comes to everyone. They say our faith is as important for God as God is for us.

And when we worship our deities of both genders with equal faith and devotion, why do we discriminate between their devotees based on their genders?

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

JUVENILE JUSTICE BILL 2015 IS IMPORTANT BECAUSE..

We may endlessly debate on ‘lowering’ or ‘not lowering’ the age of juvenile accused in heinous crimes (here we define them as murder, rape and arson) but we all would concur to this point – that unless and until our policymakers are forced by intense public pressure, they don’t believe in doing something unorthodox – that they don’t want to disturb the status-quo.

And it takes a massive public expression of anger that ‘disturbs’ their ‘this’ attitude.

As it happened in the case of passing amendments in the Juvenile Justice Act in the Parliament to promulgate a stricter law.

Though we cannot say what the proposed amendments will achieve, something that is time (and tide) dependent, we can say it has been a logical step on a tedious journey that should have begun much earlier than December 16, 2012 when the Delhi gang rape took place. Rape and other criminal incidents against women had become social evils and horrible curses much before it in our patriarchal society.

Rape and other crimes against women are a mindset problem and we cannot expect to control them by merely passing a law.

It needs mindset change.

And that requires time and consistency in efforts.

Tougher laws like the one passed in the Rajya Sabha today or in the wake of the national outrage after the December 16 gang rape, the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act, 2013 (or Nirbhaya Act), put into effect in April 2013, are vital reflections on how we are progressing.

Such steps, whenever they arrive, irrespective of what they can or cannot do, give a sense of satisfaction that the society has advanced one step ahead in this mindset change battle.

Because this is a tough battle to win – with loads of frustrating moments.

This very case is a burning example.

Somehow, our conscious was stirred to the level that the brutal gang rape of a paramedic student on December 16 in 2012 became precursor to a national outrage and global headlines. We can say the political attitude was not well received initially with brutal crackdown by the Delhi Police on protesters. But later on, intense public pressure and media scrutiny caused some sense to prevail and we saw the Criminal Law (Amendment) Act coming into force in just four months of the incident.

And though politicians had promised a very swift, ‘within months judgement’ (some say even two or three months), the nation accepted the judgement delivered by the lower court in September 2013 – in the 10th month after the incident.

A parallel track to this was the demand for comprehensive amendments in the Juvenile Justice Act because one of the accused, who was also the most brutal one, was a minor (17+ but not yet 18) and was sentenced to just three years in a correctional home. So while four others were sentenced to death (the main accused committed suicide in jail), the minor accused, who was most brutal in committing this crime, was just sentenced to three years and was to get his records expunged after his three years were over.

After December 16 incident in 2016, we saw spurt in rapes and other crimes against women but it was basically because the heightened sense of insecurity and the increased access to information sources led more cases to be reported. We also saw a spurt in reporting of such heinous crimes by juveniles, especially in 16-18 age-group.

So, this parallel track of demand for stricter laws for juveniles in 16-18 age-group was a legitimate one – apt for the senses prevailing in the society. And the demand never died down.

The ‘unnecessarily delayed’ Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill, 2015 that was passed today showed us that again. Our political class took three years after the December 2012 incident to pass the Bill and that too came after a trigger that again generated intense sentiment mobilization and could well herald a new mass movement if the Bill was delayed further. The Nirbhaya Act was promulgated in April 2013 but then politicians failed to reach on any conclusion on the Juvenile Justice Act for the next 30 months.

The trigger this time obviously was the release of the minor rapist in the case who walked free on December 20 after completing his three years in a correctional home in Delhi. Public opinion had started galvanizing much before it with themed media campaigns.

And the political class when saw this, it had no other option but to bow to the incoming public outrage. Yes, the fear of another massive public outrage forced them to pass the Bill this time with the ‘juvenile convict release’ trigger. What else can we say about their sensitivities and priorities again given the fact the Lok Sabha had passed the Bill in May 2015 but it took another six months for the Rajya Sabha to act on it.

Passage of the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Bill, 2015 is important for this reason – that will of public prevailed over the policymaking class. What qualitative changes this amendment can bring is something that only future will tell.

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

OUTRAGE? WHERE IS IT?

There was a rightly placed outrage today on Mumbai Police brutality. The incident where cops in Andheri Police Station in Mumbai badly roughed up an ‘allegedly quarrelling and drunk’ couple was caught on camera and the video clip went viral. Though the Mumbai Police, like in a trademark way by the type of generic reputation associated with the Indian police, downplayed the incident and tried to defend its men, the issue dominated the airwaves.

Now consider this.

A poor, minor girl is raped by a hooligan, who comes from a family of strongmen of the locality. She is forced to remain silent. The matter comes to light when the pregnancy matures to an advanced state to be terminated. Last month, the girl delivered a baby girl. The family is so poor that it has refused to take responsibility of the infant. The girl says she wants the child to hand over some ‘adoption centre’ as it would be impossible to raise her with the attached stigma of ‘being an illegitimate child from a rape incident’. Yesterday, the Lucknow bench of the Allahabad High Court ruled that the ‘illegitimate’ baby girl had ‘inheritance rights’ on ‘rapist’s’ property in this case – as long as she is not adopted by someone.

Now, that is a real tragic incident, something to be outraged at – though the issue didn’t become a rallying point.

The court stopped short of setting any precedent and left the matter for legislation to decide and settle on. The bench observed – it may not be possible to judicially lay down any norm or principle for inheritance by a minor who is born as a result of rape. Such attempt by the court would amount to legislation by judicial pronouncement and would operate as precedent in times to come. “It would not, therefore, be desirable to venture into this field and accordingly we leave it open for the appropriate legislature to deal with this complex social issue.”

And it is an issue that is quite pandemic – a simple Google search shows. I googled with the key phrase ‘ raped girl delivers baby + India’ and I what I came across was shocking – even if I know perverts in the society are touching new lows every day. See this, the first page on Google search:

12-year-old delivers baby, says stepfather raped her – Mumbai Mirror

Class 6 girl, gang-raped by two, delivers baby girl in Madhya Pradesh – Times of India

Raped by step-father, 12-year-old Mumbai girl delivers boy – IBN Live

Teenage Pregnancy: Mehsana rape victim wants to deliver, says cops – Indian Express

‘Bravely Go Ahead, Have the Baby,’ Court Tells Gang-Rape Survivor Who Wanted Abortion – NDTV

These are just some of the headlines from the past three months – and mind you, these are from reported cases. Countless such cases go unreported. Yet, we haven’t seen a national outrage or any outrage on any such case that can push our policymakers to legislate on this sensitive or the ‘complex social issue’ as the Allahabad High Court says.

And it is not about minor rape victims only. With more and more perverts and mentally sick people on the prowl, a legal measure becomes a must to deal with ‘upbringing related issues’ of every newborn born out of a rape assault. The legislator, in fact, must go a step ahead (from what the Allahabad High Court has done), and must legally make the child natural ‘inheritor’ of rapist’s property, and this ‘punitive’ action must be made independent of conditions like ‘future adoptions’. And this clause must be introduced in addition to the other regular criminal acts that apply on such criminals.

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

FEMALE STERILIZATION DEATHS: SOCIAL MALAISE MADE PERMANENT BY TENTACLES OF A PATRIARCHAL SOCIETY

A Supreme Court ruling says there cannot be more than 30 female sterilization surgeries by a team of doctors in a day. The ruling also says a doctor cannot perform more than 10 such surgeries in a day. The convention also says such surgeries can only be performed in a government run facility.

The doctor in question, rewarded by the state health minister of Chhattisgarh for scoring the 50,000 mark of such surgeries and arrested now, performed 83 surgeries in five hours in a private hospital that was not in operation for months.

13 of these women died after developing complications. Many are still serious and in hospitals. And there are reports of hospitalization from some other camps as well.

And ‘such’ deaths make for regular news flow. What happened in Chhattisgarh is not a standalone incident. Yes, but the way it happened pulled the global attention. A Google survey will return with reports in almost every language.

Every human life lost owing to such misplaced and ill-conceived human priorities is an utter shame but we are living in an age of lost priorities.

Smaller number of deaths don’t figure at all beyond the local news coverage. Even this huge calamity was not potent enough to storm a national outrage and serious debate. No social media campaign was launched. No ‘such’ self-proclaimed advocates came forward. It did not trend beyond the realm of news making machinery.

And ‘such’ deaths just didn’t happen now. They have had a long history, dotting the timeline of the independent India.

Female sterilization surgery has been in regular use. Earlier, it was a state policy tool, with targets explicitly fixed. In fact, it was a state policy forcefully implemented during the Emergency years. Later, to make it look more progressive and inclusive, the process was made voluntary with more emphasis on educating the participants on family planning practices.

But most of it remained on papers, especially in small town, rural and hinterland India. Targets were fixed unofficially. Targets are still fixed unofficially. And ‘such’ surgeries have continued with their botched-up legacy.

Statistical reports say 12 women die every day in India owing to the botched sterilization surgeries or complications arising after the surgeries. Official figures say over 1400 people died in ‘such’ surgeries between 2003 and 2012, almost of them being women, and the statistical history dates deep back in time.

Now, India is a vast country when we map it in terms of its population. Around 1.25 billion people, distributed mostly across the small town or rural India, and most of the them just somehow surviving their living conditions. Enough is a word seldom arrived in their lives on their day-to-day requirements.

Hunger, healthcare, education and shelter are chronic issues still affecting the large swaths of Indian demographic landscape and the ‘subjects’ of most such female sterilization camps come from these population realms.

According to the reports, the governments offers monetary and other incentives to the ‘subjects’. Yes ‘subjects’ because the conceiver and developers of such plans don’t see them beyond this as revealed by the continuance of such target driven practices.

The reports say the monetary reward for women (tubectomy) is Rs. 1000 while the monetary compensation for men (vasectomy) is Rs. 2000. Why this gap? This is when tubectomy has greater complications than vasectomy. Some other reports say the incentive is Rs. 1400 adding that the National Population Policy discourages it. At the same time, the local health workers and doctors are also provided with incentives to bring more and more women to the sterilization surgery camps, like this Chhattisgarh doctor was awarded by the state government.

It is by now a deeply entrenched social malaise made permanent by the tentacles of a patriarchal society. Women are still considered secondary or inferior family members in social formations that make for most of the ‘subjects’ of ‘such’ female sterilization camps. The extreme position it has taken should become clear from the fact that we never discuss ‘male sterilization camps’ or ‘male sterilization deaths’.

And all for Rs. 1000 or Rs. 1400 or so! From an urban, metro middle-class lifestyle, that doesn’t make anything.

But for poor families dotting the Indian population across its geographical formations, it is a great sum that they rarely find in their possession in one go. And crushed by the conceited male egos and libidos, they choose or are coaxed to opt for or are forced to go for that ‘elusive stash of cash’, never thinking or questioning that their husbands doing so would be easier and probably more lucrative.

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

THE INCENTIVIZED FEMALE STERILIZATION SURGERY DEATHS!

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Getty Images – In this 1950 photo, a group of women sit below posters advocating family planning in a doctor’s clinic in the Indian village of Badlapur in Maharashtra.

A well thought out photograph tells all. It is the essay in itself. The sayings say so. And it is true always, as this photograph tells.

Midst the controversy (that didn’t pull the outrage it should have, nationally or locally) on 10 sterilization deaths in Chhattisgarh (which got global media pull), I came across this photograph in a The Wall Street Journal’s web write-up*.

The photo tells us how wrong our priorities were when we began, as it dates back to 1950, shot in a Maharashtra village.

And it also explains why, in the 21st Century India, that claims to be a space power, a missile power, an Information Technology power and an economic power house, we still come across regular news headlines like this.

This 1950 photograph had family planning posters hanging in a doctor’s clinic in a Maharashtra village.

And the posters were in English, in a village, probably Marathi speaking (as being in Maharashtra). It was not in some town, city or metro. Also, way back in 1950, literacy rate in India was in pathetic situation. And here the subjects were women. Education for them is still a secondary priority across a large section of the Indian society. So, think of 1950!

And in those days, we began with wrong priorities, this photograph is symbolic of that. The messages were packaged in alienated words and the ground work was supported with draconian practices like ‘forced’ female sterilization camps. Yes, the camps.

Such camps and such ‘forced’ practices (though some would like to say incentivized) can be seen throughout the history of independent India.

And this Chhattisgarh camp was also a forced (incentivized) one where 10 women lost their lives owing to the expertise of the state medical practitioners who botched up the surgical process that is routinely performed at ‘camp’ levels in many parts of India.

*Why India Continues to Sterilize Its Women
http://blogs.wsj.com/indiarealtime/2014/11/11/why-india-continues-to-sterilize-its-women/

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

BADAUN GANGRAPE AND MURDERS: THE EXPECTED POLITICAL ROUNDS OF PHOTO-OPS

It is on the expected line, the ugly politicking, swarming like bees to exploit the last drop mileage to score silly points of caste politics – the tragic incident of gangrape and murder of two teenage Dalit sisters in the stronghold of Uttar Pradesh’s father-son power-duo of the moment, Mulayam Singh Yadav and Akhilesh Yadav, was bound to get the politicians rushing to the place once the issue started making its way to the national and international newsrooms.

So, after three days of the May 27 incident, on May 31, Rahul Gandhi reached the nondescript Badaun village where the humanity was raped, mutilated and chopped into countless pieces by the predatory animals many of whom are prowling among us misleading us by their human appearance.

And it was enough to start the detestable race to claim the political gains.

The so-called Dalit messiah Mayawati reached the village yesterday claiming the victim families were ready to accept the compensation amount from her only.

Now it is another sorry extension of such sordid tales of political opportunism that some children, possibly from the weaker sections of the society including the Dalits, were caught on camera cleaning the ground for landing of Mayawati’s helicopter, something that cost the labour commissioner of the district his job after the visuals were flashed on TV channels.

Then it was turn of the local MP and cousin of the chief minister Akhilesh Yadav, Dharmendra Yadav. Not even a single word heard from him on the incident till then, he propped up from somewhere all of a sudden but had no answer than irrelevant verbal manipulation on his long absence, that included some angry expressions as well (on reporters’ questions he had no answers of).

Today, two other names claiming to be at the forefront of fighting for the Dalit cause are lined up to visit the village – Ram Vilas Paswan and his son Chirag Paswan.

Let’s see what other names crop up.

Meanwhile, there is no word on Mulayam or Akhilesh visiting the families.

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

BADAUN GANGRAPE AND MURDERS: BADLANDS OF UTTAR PRADESH CONTINUE TO BLEED

Etawah‬: Home town of Mulayam Singh Yadav and Akhilesh Yadav – mother of rape survivor badly beaten by rapist’s father (a Yadav) on May 26 – no action, no arrest so far – no reaction from Mulayam and Akhilesh so far..

‎Azamgarh‬: Constituency of Mulayam Singh Yadav – a teenaged girl gangraped on May 28 – just 1 arrest, 3 still absconding – no reaction yet from the MP..

‪Badaun‬: Constituency of Akhilesh’s cousin Dharmendra Yadav – 2 teenaged Dalit sisters gangraped, killed on May 27 and bodies hanged from tree – 5 accused and 2 policemen who let it happen even if the families of the girls approached them to save their daughter (all Yadavs, in fact the local police post in-charge is also a Yadav) – no reaction from Mulayam and Dharmendra so far, routine reaction from Akhilesh after the national and international outrage, only to throw another shocker – the policmen, clearly involved in the crime, were suspended only initially – their termination only came after the outrage..

The insensitivity reflects in comments political statements:

Mulayam on a manifesto promise – “when he proposed to scrap the new anti-rape law which provides for hanging for the horrific crime. – ‘Rape ke liye phansi par chadha diya jaayega? Ladke, ladke hain. Galti ho jati hai.’ (Will boys be hanged for rape? Boys are boys. They commit mistakes.)”

April 11, 2014, DNA
(http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report-rapists-do-not-deserve-death-boys-commit-mistakes-mulayam-singh-yadav-1977168)

Badaun gangrape and murders

Why are the political parties like SP, BSP, RJD or similar outfits with bunch of criminal elements and operating with a feudal mindset voted in?

Countless idiots among us are primarily responsible for electing them and equipping them with power to slay us later.

The crime is Talibani and the attitude of administration in most cases forces us to desperately think of a swift Talibani way of justice.

But….Alas….The perils of democracy!!

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

PUNISHED WITH GANG RAPE: THE MEGALOMANIAC IN US GETS EVEN MORE INSANE

Civilizations! Societies! Contradictions! Barbarism! Insanity! Savagery!
Again and again!
Complicity, explicit or implicit, an essential part of it!

In West Bengal’s Birbhum district, a 20-year old woman was punished with gang rape by 13 men.

Her crime: she was in a relationship with a man outside her tribe/community.

Punishment: The couple was ordered to pay fine, some say Rs. 25,000, some say Rs. 50,000, but that is irrelevant here. After the couple said it was unable to pay such a hefty amount, the village chief, the head of the Panchayat (village court) ordered she be gang raped while her partner was tied up to a pole in the village square. The village head headed the bunch of 13 who were ordered to extract the quantum of punishment from the couple (especially from the girl).

This incident, from a backward district like Birbhum of a backward state like West Bengal, is not a standalone incident. Rapes and killings by Panchayats (and by the societies) have been taking human lives (more specifically women lives) in India.

This incident, a direct replication of what we have seen so many times in Indian movies of all languages, is a real-life horror story of many Indias that are dying in the world’s largest democracy.

This incident, from a tribal dominated region of India, is one of the countless incidents of gender crimes perpetrated by the feudalism of male psyche.

And such incidents are not limited to the culturally and economically backward regions like this, they are uniformly distributed even to the metro cities like Delhi and Mumbai, reports and gender crime data from the National Crime Records Bureau say.

India is known as a land of diversity, but at least, there is one universally, uniformly, distributed aspect of it – its megalomaniac composition of the male domination psyche.

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/

RIGHTS ISSUES AND WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN INDIA – FEMALE FOETICIDE AND INFANTICIDE

Female Foeticide and Infanticide

Last year, the Indian government said the country had nearly 3 million girls less (‘missing’) in 2011 (75.84 million) than their count in 2001 (78.83 million).

In a country, facing the acute crisis of a skewed sex ratio, female foeticide and female infanticide continue shamelessly.

The situation has worsened to this level that there are not enough girls to wed the boys of this patriarchal system and women are being trafficked to continue families in culturally backward states like Haryana or Rajasthan where women are treated like mere objects, tools to satisfy carnal pleasures, to carry out house chores and to give birth to the sons (daughters have no place).

A write-up of UNICEF India website says: Eligible Jat boys from Haryana travel 3,000 km across the country to find themselves a bride. With increasingly fewer girls in Haryana, they are seeking brides from as far away as Kerala as the only way to change their single status.

The write-up further says: Decades of sex determination tests and female foeticide that has acquired genocide proportions are finally catching up with states in India.

And it is not just about female foeticide or aborting the female foetus. It is also largely about female infanticide, killing the girl child before one year of age.

Naturally, differently laws have been put in place to prevent foetal sex identification, foeticide and female infanticide.

And as expected, these laws have failed, naturally, as is with laws on many other intrinsic socially mandated patriarchal gender crimes like dowry (a major reason for female foeticide and infanticide in India) or witch-hunting.

Not just foeticide or infanticide figures, there is a whole bunch of statistically incriminating data set that tells us how insanely criminal we have been to the other half of the human population.

2011 Census sex ratio is 940, i.e., 940 girls per 1000 boys. Though it is a slight improvement from 933 of 2001, the child sex ratio saw a decline from 1991 to 2011, from 945 to 914.

Female foeticide and infanticide – 10 million female foeticides – one million infanticides of every 12 million baby born – a media report says.

The girl child population was around 16 per cent of the female population in 2001 that declined to 12.9 per cent by the Census 2011.

A BBC report quoting the medical journal the Lancet said in 2006: More than 10m female births in India may have been lost to abortion and sex selection in the past 20 years, according to medical research. Researchers in India and Canada for the Lancet journal said prenatal selection and selective abortion was causing the loss of 500,000 girls a year.

And the problem is not limited only to the culturally backward states like Haryana or Rajasthan or culturally-skewed states like Delhi, Gujarat, Maharashtra or Punjab, it has become a pan-India pandemic, a social menace that is corroding the fabric of the Indian social formation.

©/IPR: Santosh Chaubey – https://santoshchaubey.wordpress.com/