The article originally appeared on India Today.

Counter-terrorism has been a big focus in all recent summit-level India-US joint statements. But what makes the joint statement delivered by Prime Minister Narendra Modi and US President Donald Trump different is the way it is blunt and harsh on Pakistan, showing solidarity with Indian concerns on Pakistan-sponsored terrorism in India.

It directly calls Pakistan a terror haven, unlike the Modi-Obama joint statements.

The statement mentions Pakistan thrice.

It calls on Pakistan to ensure that its territory isn’t used to launch terrorist attacks on other countries, and to “expeditiously bring to justice the perpetrators of the 26/11 Mumbai, Pathankot, and other cross-border terrorist attacks perpetrated by Pakistan-based groups.”
When we compare the Modi-Trump joint statement with Modi-Obama joint statements, we can see a visible difference.

The three joint statements after Modi-Obama summits in September 2014, January 2015 and June 2016 ask Pakistan to work to bring perpetrators of the 2008 Mumbai attacks to justice. The January 2016 Pathankot air-base terror strike was added to the June 2016 joint statement.

But these statements don’t call Pakistan a terror haven.

The June 7, 2016 Modi-Obama joint statement talks about “bringing to justice the perpetrators of terrorism anywhere in the world and the infrastructure that supports them” and emphasizes on “the need to strengthen cooperation against terrorist threats from extremist groups, such as Al-Qaeda, Da’esh/ISIL, Jaish-e Mohammad, Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, D Company and their affiliates.” But it stops short of calling Pakistan a terror haven, with the routine diplomatic line that “the two leaders also called for Pakistan to bring the perpetrators of the 2008 Mumbai and 2016 Pathankot terrorist attacks to justice.”

The January 25, 2015 joint statement, titled “Shared Effort; Progress for All,” was issued when Barack Obama was the chief guest at India’s Republic Day parade. It called “for ‘zero tolerance’ and reaffirmed deep concern over the continued threat posed by transnational terrorism including by groups like Al Qaeda and the ISIL, and called for eliminating terrorist safe havens and infrastructure, disrupting terrorist networks and their financing, and stopping cross-border movement of terrorists.”

It also highlighted the need for “joint and concerted efforts to disrupt entities such as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad, D Company and the Haqqani Network”, noting the US sanctions against three D Company affiliates. But the mention of Pakistan was limited to “bring the perpetrators of the November 2008 terrorist attack in Mumbai to justice.”

Similarly, the joint statement issued after the first bilateral summit between Modi and Obama on September 30, 2014 “stressed the need for joint and concerted efforts, including the dismantling of safe havens for terrorist and criminal networks, to disrupt all financial and tactical support for networks such as Al Qaeda, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Jaish-e-Mohammad, the D-Company, and the Haqqanis with the similar worn-out line on Pakistan that “it needs to bring the perpetrators of the November 2008 terrorist attack in Mumbai to justice.”

India has long been complaining to the US about its “good vs bad terror” approach to Pakistan. The US would slam Pakistan for letting the Haqqani Faction, the Taliban and Al Qaeda use Pakistani soil to perpetrate terror in Afghanistan but would never go beyond customary condemnations on Pakistan-based groups pushing terrorism in India. It seems that’s changing now.

Even if symbolic, US pressure made Pakistan put LeT chief Hafiz Saeed under house-arrest. Yesterday, the US designated Pakistan-based Hizbul Mujahideen chief Syed Salahuddin a global terrorist. And now, there’s a joint statement that specifically asks Pakistan to crackdown on terror networks operating from its soil.



Iran’s supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has raked up the Kashmir issue again repeating his oft-quoted line of “Kashmir being an oppressed nation”. After leading the Eid al-Fitr prayers in Tehran, Khamenei exhorted the Muslim world to openly support “Yemen, Bahrain and Kashmir”. Khamenei called on the Islamic community to unite against the “injuries being inflicted on the world of Islam.”

According to a write-up posted on http://english.khamenei.ir, Khamenei urged Muslims to “support oppressed nations”. While speaking about Yemen, another front in the battle between Iran and Saudi Arabia to establish regional supremacy, he said that “the World of Islam should explicitly support the people of Yemen” and likened the situation there with Bahrain and Kashmir saying, “our people can back this great movement within the World of Islam. Just as we explicitly express our position against enemies and adversaries, the world of Islam–especially the elites in it–should follow this path and take a position towards seeking to please God, absolutely, even if it leads to dissatisfaction of the arrogant front.”

This is not the first time that Khamenei has raised the Kashmir bogey. India had summoned the Iranian Ambassador in 2010 to issue demarche after Khamenei’s repeated calls to the Muslim community to support the so-called struggle in Kashmir. Though India was a friendly nation to Iran and it abstained from voting on a UN Security Council resolution on human rights violations in Iran, Khamenei went on to declare Kashmir a nation and India a Zionist regime.

His official website mentions at least three other instance, going as far back as 1990, when Khamenei tried to barge-in in an issue that India considers strictly bilateral, between India and Pakistan, with a non-compromising stand that Kashmir is an integral part of India.


It is not coincidental that Khamenei has chosen a time to test the Indian patience again when Indian prime minister Narendra Modi is in the United States and the significance Donald Trump attaches to the visit can be seen from the fact that Modi is the first world leader for whom Trump is hosting a working dinner.

On one side, he will be reminding India of steering clear of any anti-Iran designs of Trump. Khamenei’s anti-India rhetoric again, at this time, when Kashmir is going through a prolonged phase of insurgency, may be aimed at dissuading India and Modi from being party to any anti-Iran front that Trump may discuss with the Indian prime minister, even if, historically, India has been non-partisan on taking sides as we saw in case of India abstaining from UN voting against Iran.

At the same time, he will convey the message to the world and to Iran’s trading partners that who is the real boss in Iran, especially after the defeat of the candidate he was supporting in the recently held elections.

It is said that Iran’s public wants to do away with decades of religious fundamentalism and global sanctions and its most visible example was seen in the re-election of its moderate president Hassan Rouhani against the wishes of Ayatollah Khamenei who was seen supporting Rouhani’s hardliner rival Ebrahim Raisi.

US President Donald Trump has been a harsh critic of Iran. During campaign phase, he would often criticize his predecessor Barack Obama for brokering the nuclear deal with Iran in 2015 that eased sanctions on Iran. It was seen as a big win for moderate Rouhani, domestically and internationally, and his re-election has a put of seal of approval on it.

Last month, during his first major foreign tour to a group of Gulf nations, Trump slammed Iran for being a terror exporter and appealed to the leaders of the 50 Muslims majority countries present there to isolate Iran as long as it didn’t “committed to becoming a partner of peace.” Though Trump extended the relief given to Iran from sanctions in May, it may be more a procedural extension before Trump takes a harsh decision like he has done by withdrawing many relaxations given to Cuba by Barack Obama in another landmark deal that restored diplomatic ties between the US and Cuba after almost six decades.

Iran has emerged as India’s third largest oil supplier and Iran’s second biggest buyer after sanctions were eased in 2015. Last year, PM Modi was in Tehran and India-Iran inked a deal to develop the strategic Chabahar port in response to China developing Gwadar port in Pakistan’s Balochistan province and bilateral trade ties between both countries are rapidly expanding.