DEMONETIZATION IS A RELEVANT EXAMPLE TO UNDERSTAND WHY EXIT POLLS FAIL IN INDIA

Demonetisation has been equalled with a demon that has sort of ruined ordinary lives in India. Its opponents have been vocal from the day 1, when prime minister Narendra Modi announced the move on November 8, 2016. The move has been widely panned even outside India.

If we go for the proponents and supporters of it, they are certainly outnumbered by the huge army of anti-demonetisation voices. The government has got some good voices, with many economics experts on its side, but they fall short of the outreach demonetisation opponents enjoy.

And they have compelling factors behind it.

Like endless problems faced by people during the last three months of demonetisation that not only affected their daily lives but also proved a nightmare for family functions, be it parties, anniversaries or weddings! Everything went haywire. Dozens died in bank queues. Many committed suicide out of despair. You were treated like a thief or culprit to claim even your hard earned money. The pain has been so deep that even the government had to accept it. People’s plight forced even many pro-demonetisation voices to question its messy implementation.

These were quite compelling factors to make an ideal case where the BJP would face complete rout in every upcoming electoral battle in the demonetisation aftermath.

But it didn’t happen. There was no aftermath on this front.

Civic polls are the primary interface in our electoral system where the smallest units of our legislature, Panchayat institutions, at village, block and district levels, elect their representatives. Theoretically, demonetisation pangs were thought to be most severe for people at the bottom of the pyramid in our society, people in our villages, towns and small cities, people who vote in our civic polls.

But post demonetisation, the BJP has won civic polls in three states, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh and most recently in Maharashtra where it registered a stellar victory by winning 8 out of 10 municipal corporations. In Odisha, the party displaced Congress to emerge as the main opposition and threat to the ruling BJD. Besides, the BJP also won local bodies polls and bypolls in Rajasthan, Chandigarh and Faridabad.

Theoretically, it should never have happened. These voters should have rejected the BJP en masse.

But, practically, it didn’t happen. These poll outcomes show the voters have, in fact, shown increased faith in the BJP government after the demonetisation move, a paradox to all the misery demonetisation brought.

The pundits, experts, analysts, politicians, activists and people are scratching their heads in trying to understand how this is happening. It is proving a black-hole for them.

In fact, this mindset is representative of our society which has multiple layers, something that makes it a tough nut to crack for any political party or marketer or social campaign. Most of the times it proves a black-hole. In spite of social media and internet advances, India is still not in public domain where researchers/marketers/surveyors can sift through the metadata and big data to assess society’s preferences for a brand, be a commercial brand or a social ones like demonetisation or our politicians .

And the task becomes almost impossible when it comes to gauge people’s mood on who should represent them politically. Obviously, the ‘why’ of it is inherent to the ‘who’ of it. That is the underlying reason exit polls fail in India. The pollsters don’t have data to read into people’s mind, their preferences and habits. And almost of them don’t go beyond few pockets to complete their surveys. So, the extract, based on which they make their final projections is always ‘undone’ or sketchy. And when it happens so, luck becomes the central character in bridging this telling gap between reality and ‘projection’. And we all know most of the times this ‘telling gap’ remains there to tell its tales once the chaos subsides.

©SantoshChaubey

‘WHEEL-OILED’ OR ‘SOFT-PEDALED’?

ToonJunction

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‘WHEEL-OILED’ OR ‘SOFT-PEDALED’?

©RaginiChaubey
©SantoshChaubey

WHAT IS HINDUTVA FOR YOU?

What is Hindutva for you? Does the word Hindu signify a religion or is it symbolic of a way of life?

For me, Hindutva or Hinduism or being Hindu is a way of life. And the origin of the word Hindu confirms it. In ancient times, Persian and Greek people would use the word Hindu for the people of the Indian Subcontinent living on this side of the river Indus. So it basically connoted a geographical and cultural identity. Though there are differences on when the word Hindu became synonymous with a religious identity – in medieval or British colonial India – but it did happen so. And if we talk of the last or this Century – it is now an established fact that Hinduism or the Hindu religion is the largest religion of India in terms of number of followers.

It is said that Savarkar explained the term Hindutva in his essay to explain Indian national identity. But if the word could not gain universal or wide acceptance in India, there were inherent reasons behind it and the main was that Hindutva was still seen in the context of Hinduism or Hindu religion. After the independence, some rightwing political outfits made politics based on Hindutva their ideology and agenda. With time their sphere of influence increased and with it increased the allegations that these parties were using religion to gain political mileage – be it the day-to-day politics or electoral politics.

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TOMORROW IS A BIG DAY FOR ‘HINDUTVA’

A seven judge bench of the Supreme Court is going to deliberate on its 1995 verdict that defined ‘Hindutva and Hinduism’ as a ‘way of life’.

While reinstating Shiv Sena’s Manohar Joshi and the BJP’s Ramchandra Kapse assembly election victories, Justice JS Verma had observed, “It is a fallacy and an error of law to proceed on the assumption that any reference to Hindutva or Hinduism in a speech makes it automatically a speech based on Hindu religion as opposed to other religions.”

His bench, in fact, further said that ‘Hindutva and Hinduism’ represented India’s people and its cultural ethos – “It may well be that these words are used in the speech to promote secularism and to emphasise the way of life of the Indian people and the Indian culture or ethos, or to criticise the policy of any political party as discriminatory or intolerant.”

It was an epoch-defining judgment which cleared the path of the BJP and the like-minded parties who weaved their politics on Hinduism and Hindutva as it removed the legal hurdle due to the interpretation of ‘Hindutva and Hinduism’ as under religion and thus as corrupt practices under the Representation of People (RPA) Act.

Its Section 123 (3-A) says, “The promotion of, or attempt to promote, feelings of enmity or hatred between different classes of the citizens of India on grounds of religion, race, caste, community, or language, by a candidate or his agent or any other person with the consent of a candidate or his election agent for the furtherance of the prospects of the election of that candidate or for prejudicially affecting the election of any candidate.”

And that defines one of the many corrupt practices it lays norms for.

Now, according to this landmark judgment, any electoral practice aimed at influencing voters in the name of ‘Hindutva and Hinduism’ doesn’t constitute the case for corruption because Hindutva is not a religion but an all-encompassing term that defines the Indian way of life.

But the verdict has not been beyond questions, even from different judges of the Supreme Court. So anything can happen tomorrow.

To continue..

©SantoshChaubey

SURGICAL STRIKE TO SURGICAL POLITICS: WAR OF WORDS

The surgical strike by India deep inside Pakistan-occupied-Kashmir on September 29 has not only sent Pakistan into internal political and military chaos, it has also unnerved many in India on the political lines in the season of upcoming state assembly polls including Uttar Pradesh, the most vital state in the country’s electoral politics. If the BJP wants to gain electoral and political mileage from this long-pending decision(and therefore is morally right because it has shown the political will required), the opposition is trying all to paint the BJP in a selfish and immoral hue. Their sole focus is to paint a negative image for the BJP where it can be seen belittling the Indian Army and can be seen as scavenging on pride and valour of our armed forces for political gains.

Now which way the electoral tide will turn only time will tell but the ongoing war of words is throwing many interesting, contradictory and repulsive comments.

THE BJP WOULD OBVIOUSLY GO FOR FULL CREDITS.

Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar has taken the charge from the BJP side. And his have been honest comments, even if some may question his language. He speaks emphatically about the surgical strikes, efficiency and might of the Indian Armed Forces, what it has done to Pakistan, those in India questioning it and the row over who should get the credit. From October 1 to 12, he gradually addresses all the issue as and when the questions are raised.

October 12: “I don’t mind sharing credits, including the surgical strikes, with every countryman because it is done by our Armed Forces and not by any political party. So all Indians, including those doubting Thomases, also can share the credit. As for myself, I will only share the credit at the most… the major share goes to the Prime Minister but the issue I will at least claim the credit (for) is decision making ability and planning. So I think that should settle the nerves of many people…,” Parrikar said, adding, “I understand quite well because I’m a politician though not a politician by profession… that people’s sentiments are satisfied.”

October 6: “It was a 100% perfect surgical strike. Even when bigger nations do surgical strikes, they are not as successful. No one had doubted bravery of our forces ever, but for the first time recently some people are doubting. There are many people who are not loyal to our country and criticized Indian army, but we don’t have to give them any proof.”

“Someone said that I am straight-forward (seedha-saadha). I think the Defence Minister should not be straight when it comes to ensuring the safety of the country. “In matters of the country’s defence, I can think tedha (wily).”

“People knew the army’s prowess. But a political decision needed to be taken. That has now happened under Modiji’s leadership. The mindset of the country has changed.”

October 1: “Pakistan’s condition after the surgical strikes is like that of an anesthetized patient after a surgery who doesn’t know that the surgery has already been performed on him. Even two days after the surgical strikes, Pakistan+ has no idea what has happened.”

“Indian troops were like Hanuman who did not quite know their prowess before the surgical strikes. The surgical strikes gave our forces an idea of what they were capable of doing. Pakistan is bewildered following the strikes, not quite knowing how to react.”

Home Minister Rajnath Singh has lent him some able support as reflected by his statements – putting India’s perspectives on a solid ground – be it the ‘how and why’ of the surgical strike or our political willpower or credentials of our armed forces.

October 11: “I want to welcome Modiji here as for the first time in the history of independent India he has succeeded in holding country’s head high at international level. He has succeeded in giving message to the world that Bharat is not weak but it’s a ‘damdar’ (powerful) nation. In last few days, we have displayed our strength. We have sent out a message to the world that India is a strong country.”

October 8: “Our heritage is ‘Vasudev Kutumbakam’ meaning the whole world is one family. We do not intend to occupy others’ land. We never open fire first, but if attacked, in retaliation we never count the bullets after pulling the trigger.”

October 2: “The country as well as the whole world is aware of this (surgical strikes)..the way our jawans displayed valour have made India proud.”

And like an efficient team-leader, Narendra Modi caps what his ministers and party members say even if doesn’t mention Pakistan directly. He even warns them to desist from indulging in ‘chest-thumping’ over the surgical strike.

October 9: “We will celebrate Vijaya Dashami in the coming days. This year’s Vijaya Dashami is very special for the country. Being strong does not mean being against anyone. If we exercise for our strength, then the neighbour need not worry (thinking) that it is to target him. I am exercising to strengthen myself and for my health.”

CONGRESS IS IN A STATE OF UTTER CONFUSION.

The party rushed to praise the surgical strike and show solidarity with the government. Sonia Gandhi issues a statement on September 29. Rahul Gandhi reacted on September 30.

Sonia Gandhi – September 29: “This is a strong message that conveys our country’s resolve to prevent further infiltration and attacks on our security forces and our people. The party hopes that Pakistan will recognize that it bears a great responsibility in the continuing cross-border terrorist attacks against India. The Party expects that Pakistan will take effective action to dismantle the infrastructure of terrorism that it has supported and it ensures that its territory and the territory under its control is not used for terrorist purposes against India.”

Rahul Gandhi – September 30: “I want to thank him (PM Modi) because for the first time in two and half years he has taken an action that is of the stature of PM. Modi has my full support; the Congress party and entire nation is standing by him.”

But it has been a downhill journey of contradictions and confusions since then. Some of its leaders like Digvijaya Singh or Sanjay Nirpuam are openly questioning the authenticity of the surgical strike, some others, including its many spokespersons, are busy asking for proofs, while some other are still not sure what to say. The common thread among them is that they all are asserting that many surgical strikes were carried out even during the Congress regime but the party never went to take credit as it showed political maturity. And since Congress has been silent on taking any action against motormouths like Nirupam, it shows doing so has tacit approval from the party because all such attempts are aimed at denying the BJP any political gain from the surgical strike.

Rahul Gandhi – October 6: “Humare jawan hai jinhone khoon diya hai, jinhone surgical strikes kiya, unke khoon ke peeche aap (Modi) chuppe huye hai (Our soldiers conducted surgical strikes and gave their blood. Modi is just hiding behind their sacrifices). Unki aap dalali kar rahe ho (trading over the blood of Indian soldiers).”

Like of the BJP leaders, even here the statements are self-explanatory.

P Chidambaram – October 12: “My stand is quite clear. I said, we support the government. We believe the Army and the DGMO. And whatever pre-emptive action the government of the day will take, as a responsible opposition, the Congress party will support the government. Now I said draw a line there, that subject is over.”

“There have been demands from quarters that evidence must be released. That is not questioning the Army action. That is a suggestion to the government so that we can call the bluff of Pakistan. Pakistan’s bluff has takers in some quarters, The New York Times, Washington Post, some sections of the social media, even that forgotten group called United Nations Observers Group. Therefore, to call Pakistan’s bluff, it is for the government to consider whether it would like to release any evidence. But I made it clear that’s a decision for the government to take. Whatever decision government takes, in that respect, Congress party will support that decision.”

On earlier strikes: “Quite rightly. Because the policy of the government of that day was strategic restraint and as part of strategic restraint we left such cross-border action to be handled by the Army at the operational, tactical level. We did not raise it to the government level. I believe UPA’s policy was right. But I am not saying that the present government cannot change that policy…Government has fuller information than any one of us. And, therefore, I concede the right of the government to adopt a modified policy. And, in fact, I go a step further and say after Gurdaspur, Pathankot, Pampore and Uri, any government could be expected to consider a modified policy.”

Kapil Sibal – October 7: “Please stop this poster baazi. Let the army do its job like it has been doing. Amit Shah has said his party will take this surgical strike to the people: this clearly shows they want to politicise the matter.”

BJP ALLIES HAVE REACTED AS PER THEIR COMPULSIONS.

Most of the BJP allies have owned the surgical strike except the Shiv Sena and the PDP. Even they have not criticised the step, but have exercised caution in praising the BJP (Shiv Sena) or reacting on the news itself (PDP). The Shiv Sena-BJP combine is going through a rough weather while the BJP-PDP combine is seen as an unnatural alliance.

Shiv Sena – Uddhav Thackeray – October 11: “After the strikes, I phoned Modi and told him, ‘Narendrabhai, this is the Narendrabhai we want as PM. Modi should now take such an action that not only PoK but entire Pakistan should be known as part of India. Those who said the strikes were fake have rotten brains and water of gutters of Lahore and Karachi and not blood flowing through their veins. Did Rahul Gandhi learn of the ‘khoon ki dalali’ from Bofors (scam)?” How can you show mistrust on Army while criticising Modi? Those who show distrust for our brave soldiers may be offspring of Pakistan.”

PDP – Mehbooba Mufti – September 29: “We in J&K have suffered immensely because of the violence and know very well its dangers and consequences. For the people of Jammu and Kashmir, peace along the borders and within the mainland is of immense significance and I hope the political leadership of the two countries would also treat it with the same spirit.”

SOME IN THE POLITICAL OPPOSITION, ESPECIALLY THE REGIONAL FORCES, SAW THEIR FUTURE COURSE IN DENYING THE BJP ANY SPACE.

Mayawati – October 10: “There is a feeling among people that this (the strikes) could have been delayed for taking political and electoral mileage. Instead of honouring its political leaders after the strikes, BJP should have felicitated the army for it. The credit for the strikes should go to the Indian army and not Narendra Modi.”

Akhilesh Yadav – October 10: Backing Congress vice-president Rahul Gandhi’s ‘dalali’ comments UP chief minister Akhilesh Yadav said Rahul must have made his comments after much deliberation – “Unhone ye bayan diya hai to kuch soch samajh ke diya hoga. Kuch jankari zaroor hogi.”

Akhilesh Yadav – October 6: “BJP makes up new words. What is surgical? War is a war, the villagers don’t understand ‘surgical’. It’s good that Indian army conducted surgical strike, but we still believe that dialogue is the best way to sort things out.”

Lalu Yadav – October 10: “BJP is falsely trying to take credit of brave acts of the Indian Army (for the successful surgical strikes on the launch pads of terrorists in PoK). The Army is known for its valour and it has given befitting reply to Pakistan’s attempts to push terrorists into the country and would do so in future as well. I am sure if the need arises, our brave Army would do a major surgery like this in future also.”

SOME LIKE NITISH KUMAR HAVE BEEN THERE FOR IT – RIGHT FROM THE BEGINNING.

October 3: “The decision of surgical strike taken by the Centre is successful. Everybody knows that the Union Government is making foolproof arrangements to deal with such elements. Our Army and Paramilitary personnel who are deployed at the borders have the strength to deal with such situation.”

September 29: “We are proud of our Indian Army and we salute and appreciate their bravery and valour. We sincerely congratulate the Central government and our brave armed forces for the decisive action taken against terrorism.”

AND ARVIND KEJRIWAL, LIKE ALWAYS, HAS BEEN IN A DIFFERENT LEAGUE – UPS AND DOWNS – UNSURE OF WHAT TO SAY, WHEN TO SAY.

October 7: “I strongly condemn what Rahul Gandhi said about our jawans, this is a matter in which we all need to stand united. I pity Rahul’s mindset. There should be no politics on surgical strike and I am with Modi.”

October 5: Accused the BJP of playing politics over the surgical strike and questioning him for asking proof to counter Pakistan’s false propaganda.

October 3: “My blood boiled when I saw that report. There were reports being published by BBC and The New York Times questioning whether surgical strikes actually took place. Pakistan is trying to damage India’s reputation in the international community. I appeal to the prime minister: Unmask Pakistan’s false propaganda like the way you (Modi) and the army taught Pakistan a lesson on the ground. Unmask Pakistan’s baseless attempt to damage the reputation of India on the global forum. The entire country is with you. We are with you. I also appeal to the people to not fall for Pakistan’s false propaganda.”

All quotes, statements and observations have been taken from media reports.

©SantoshChaubey

SURGICAL STRIKE TO SURGICAL POLITICS

Yes, that is the case right now in India and we are not going to see tempers coming down soon as Uttar Pradesh, politically most important state in India, is going to polls in some months and the BJP, the ruling party in the Centre, will go all out to win the war of perceptions by exploiting the political mileage associated with this military action.

And they are rightly entitled to do so. Wars (or cross-border surgical strikes) are never only military in nature in democracies like India. They need political sanctity and Narendra Modi’s government gave the Indian military this much needed sanctity this time – unlike the previous political establishments.

The opposition and BJP’s frenemies (like Shiv Sena) are fearing this. So, while frenemies are trying to make a sort of balance in appreciating this surgical strike while reminding the BJP of some other nagging (dragging) issue(s) at the same time, the rivals are going all guns blazing against Narendra Modi and his party, as if they are sworn like enemies – going to the extent that they are even badmouthing and namecalling the Indian Army in the process.

So much so that it is now being aptly called surgical politics.

Yes, in order to discredit the BJP and deny it the space it is looking for with the surgical strike, riding on the wave of patriotism and nationalism, the rivals are now busy in doing the surgery of the initial stand they had taken – of supporting the government.

Like Pakistan, except the teams in India that strategized and implemented the surgical strike, no one even in India had imagined that India would do it. So, as the initial reaction, they had nothing but to offer their whole-hearted support and they did so, except the Left Front. And the Left Front now doesn’t have much political currency left in India.

But the BJP had other plans and rightly so. The party decided to promote the surgical strike on national and international platforms. Every small and big leader of the BJP got busy in telling the nation that how it was a result of the efficient and impact leadership by Narendra Modi. There were tweets, Facebook posts, posters, banners, placards and voices. And as earlier said, the BJP was entitled to it.

Now everyone knows how the 2011 Osama bin Laden’s surgical strike helped Barack Obama in winning the second term in 2012 and that would be high on everyone’s mind here in India in these times.

So, as the BJP proceeded with its plans, coupled with increased desperation and panic in Pakistan, the rivals started seeing red. And when it was more than what they could have taken, they started resorting to means that could have denied the BJP this opportunity – even if it meant questioning the Indian Army credentials and terming the whole surgical strike a lie, like Sanjay Nirupam did, or asking for evidence like Arvind Kejriwal or P Chidambaram or Ajay Alok or many other did.

But their changing stands and statements say they don’t know how to proceed. So, while they are shouting over the top, their strategy looks quite muddled. A leader says it was fake. Another leader of that party says it wasn’t fake but the BJP should not politicise the matter. A leader says we need the evidence. Another leader of that party says providing evidence is the sole discretion of the government. Many voice, many stands, but no clear signal! And it is sending a very negative message about them. Because most of them are sounding phoney (and even outrageous).

©SantoshChaubey

ACTIVISTS JOINING POLITICS: A WELCOME SIGN FOR INDIAN DEMOCRACY

“I have been fasting for the last 16 years. I haven’t got anything from it yet. I am ending my fast today. I want to try a different agitation now. I will contest against the Chief Minister of Manipur in the upcoming state elections.”

Another activist joining politics – that is always a welcome step for Indian democracy. On July 31, Yogendra Yadav and Prashant Bhushan, two pivots of the 2011 anti-corruption movement led by Anna Hazare, announced that they would launch their political party formally on October 2, on the Gandhi Jayanti Day.

Yogendra and Prashant are from the latest crop of the experimental activists who are joining politics after trying their hands in activism for a long period and we can hope that their experience would push them to cleanse the system as they claim and would deliver a politics that would truly be common man centric.

We can say it all began with the Anna’s movement in 2011. It was a massively successful civil society movement in India after decades that forced the government to take notice.

First it was Arvind Kejriwal and his group of supporters from ‘India Against Corruption’ who took the political plunge after they saw that their movement was losing direction and the government was getting an upper hand. Initially, Yogendra and Prashant were with Kejriwal. But later difference cropped up resulting in Kejriwal expelling Yogendra Yadav, Shanti Bhushan and Prashant Bhushan from the party. In the wave that began with Anna’s movement, many other activists from across the country soon joined the new political party that emerged from the movement – the Aam Aadmi Party.

That is a spontaneous reaction from the people who have been fighting honestly for the last many years – that is spontaneous with Irom Sharmila who has become a global icon of peace and the struggle for it. It is heartening for Indian democracy that the trend has continued and Irom Sharmila is the most notable addition to it after Arvind Kejriwal.

The world has seen the resolve Irom Sharmila has and so we can say she will follow her course even in the future with same zeal. She is yet another in the growing list of activists who are taking a plunge in the mainstream politics and that is a welcome sign for Indian democracy.

Democracy is a participatory process. Every citizen of the country needs to participate in the process to nurture it, to make it strong. Likewise, they need to participate in the acts to keep a check on the factors that weaken it.

A democracy is run by its political institutions.

To continue..

©SantoshChaubey

A JAIN CM IN GUJARAT

A direct message that the BJP is now looking beyond Patels – Patels may be influential but they are just 12-15 percent of the Gujarat population.

Minority (Muslim) and SC voters form another 25 percent. So, that gives the BJP enough space to maneuver for the OBC voters who form the largest chunk of the population – almost 50 percent.

First not succumbing to the Patel agitation pressure – and then not appointing a Patel CM – enough messages to the OBC voters.

Vijay Rupani, the Gujarat CM designate is a career RSS veteran even if he is the first time MLA. When Narendra Modi was made Gujarat CM in 2001, he also had no significant administration of running the political offices of a government. So, there is a precedent and Rupani will face no acceptability problem.

It also shows who is going to be the boss in the next assembly polls scheduled for December 2017 – Amit Shah.

Rupani is seen close to Amit Shah while Anandiben and Amit Shah are bitter rivals. So, it will be basically Amit Shah now who will wield the real power.

To continue..

©SantoshChaubey

STORIES THAT WILL DO THE TALKING TOMORROW – GUJARAT AND VARANASI

Obviously the first one will be on who will be the next chief minister of Gujarat after Anandiben Patel, the outgoing CM, shocked everyone by announcing her wish to retire in a Facebook post. After her Facebook post that took the political and media circles by storm, she soon went to meet the Governor of the state to apprise him of the development.

Obviously we were expecting it – especially after the Patel reservation agitation that affected many parts of the state and was seen as a clear case of mishandling by Anandiben Patel. The agitation that got violent is now threatening the unbridled run of the BJP in the state after many Dalit atrocity incidents that has galvanized the Dalit community against the BJP.

Dalit or the SC voters may be just 8 percent in Gujarat and the minority voters may be just 12 percent, but their combine is a formidable foe in Uttar Pradesh where these two communities together form 38.5 percent of the population.

To send a message that BJP itself was worried on rising anti-Dalit incidents, especially to check the chances and social engineering of Mayawati’s Dalit-Muslim combine in Uttar Pradesh, where assembly polls are slated to be held early next year, before Gujarat goes to the polls somewhere in the last month of the year, the party had to take some tough decision.

And Anandiben Patel was the natural target here. She proved a weak CM who could not take along or tame the different communities of the state. To add to it, her family was entangled in corruption allegations.

And sacrificing Anandiben would serve another purpose – it would also help to appease the OBC voters in Uttar Pradesh. OBCs form the largest block of the population of the state – around 45 percent – and the BJP is targeting this vote bank. It has replaced its upper caste state president with an OBC face and will certainly try to encash the OBC credentials of prime minister Modi as it did in Lok Sabha polls.

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